Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Becky: Hi everyone, and welcome back to ArabicPod101.com This is Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 24 - What Forms of ID Are Accepted in Egypt? Becky Here.
Hany: مرحبا I'm Hany.
Becky: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to ask for requirements to enter a place or apply for certain paperwork. The conversation takes place in front of the embassy.
Hany: It's between Eleanor and an official.
Becky: The speakers are strangers, so they will use formal Arabic. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
موظف: جواز سفرك لو سمحت.
إلينور: لم أجلبه معي اليوم. هل هو ضروري؟
موظف: نعم يا آنسة. لا يمكنك دخول السفارة إن لم تجلبي معك جواز سفرك.
إلينور: ماذا لو أحضرت معي بطاقتي الجامعية؟
موظف: إذا كنت طالبة في جامعة مصرية يمكنك الدخول ببطاقتك.
إلينور: حتى إذا كنت أجنبية؟
موظف: أجل. نحن فقط بحاجة لما يفيد هويتك.
Becky: Listen to the conversation with the English translation
Official: Your passport, please.
Eleanor: I didn't bring it with me today. Is it necessary?
Official: Yes, ma'am. You can't get into the embassy if you don't have your passport.
Eleanor: What if I bring my university ID card?
Official: If you are a student at an Egyptian university, you can get in using your university ID card.
Eleanor: Even if I was a foreigner?
Official: Yes. We just need something that will prove your identity.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Becky: Are there many words that have literally been translated from English in Arabic?
Hany: Yes, there are many words that have been newly integrated into Arabic from English.
Becky: What are some of them?
Hany: For example, passport, ID card, brainstorming, globalization, and many other words may look odd in Arabic, but will make sense if you think of their original English counterpart.
Becky: Let’s give an example.
Hany: العصف الذهني
Becky: Which means "brainstorming". Okay, now onto the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Becky: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Hany: جلب [natural native speed]
Becky: to bring
Hany: جلب[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hany: جلب [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have..
Hany: ضروري [natural native speed]
Becky: necessary
Hany: ضروري[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hany: ضروري [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have..
Hany: دخول [natural native speed]
Becky: entry
Hany: دخول[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hany: دخول [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have..
Hany: سفارة [natural native speed]
Becky: embassy
Hany: سفارة[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hany: سفارة [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have..
Hany: بطاقة [natural native speed]
Becky: postcard
Hany: بطاقة[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hany: بطاقة [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have..
Hany: جامعي [natural native speed]
Becky: university
Hany: جامعي[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hany: جامعي [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have..
Hany: بحاجة [natural native speed]
Becky: in need
Hany: بحاجة[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hany: بحاجة [natural native speed]
Becky: And lastly..
Hany: أحضر [natural native speed]
Becky: to bring
Hany: أحضر[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hany: أحضر [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Becky: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first phrase is..
Hany: ماذا لَوْ (māḏā law)
Becky: meaning "what if".
Hany: This expression consists of two words: māḏā meaning "what" and law meaning "if."
Becky: Literally it means "what if," and it's similar to its English equivalent expression. You use it when you want to talk about a hypothetical situation, and then put a full sentence after it. Hany, can you give us an example?
Hany: Sure. For example, you can say.. ماذا لَوْ اِستَخدَمتُ القِرفَة بَدَلاً مِن الشوكولاتَه؟ (māḏā law istaḫdamtu al-qirfah badalan min al-šūkūlātah?)
Becky: ..which means "What if I used cinnamon instead of chocolate?" Okay, what's the next phrase?
Hany: يُفيدُ هُوِيَّتَك (yufīdu huwiyyatak)
Becky: meaning "proves your identity"
Hany: This expression consists of two words: yufīdu meaning "show" and huwiyyatak meaning "your identity."
Becky: Literally it means "show your identity". You use it to describe any card or paper that proves who you are.
Hany: The possessive pronoun k changes depending on who you're talking to.
Becky: Can you give us an example using this phrase?
Hany: For example, you can say.. أَرِني ما يُفيدُ هَوِيَّتَك. (ʾarinī mā yufīdu hawiyyatak.)
Becky: .. which means "Show me what proves your identity." Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Becky: In this lesson, you'll learn how to ask for the requirements to enter a place or apply for certain paperwork..
Hany: We will talk about some of the most commonly used conditional expressions in Arabic. These are structures that are used to ask about conditions and rules.
Becky: First off, let’s see the three main conditional particles in Arabic:
Hany: They are إذا (ʾiḏā), إن (in) and لَو (law)
Becky: Is there any difference between them?
Hany: All of them mean “if,” but ʾiḏā is the most commonly used one, in implies the odds are slim, and law implies that you don’t want it to happen, so it’s usually used with sentences that have a negative nuance.
Becky: Conditional particles, just like the English “if,” are used right before the verb in verb sentences.
Hany: In addition to that, you can also use it before sentences with إن/كان (in/kana).
Becky: Listeners, keep in mind that inserting conditional particles into noun sentences is prohibited in Arabic, but it is a common mistake that learners make because of the effect of the language transfer from English to Arabic.
Hany: Let’s see a simple example of a conditional from the dialogue, جَوْازُ سَفَرِكَ لَوْ سَمَحْت., ǧawāzu safarika law samaḥt.
Becky: meaning “Your passport, please.”
Hany: The expression law samaḥt in Arabic translates literally to “if you allow” in English, but in context, it means “please”.
Becky: let’s break down this expression.
Hany: First we have the conditional law, which is a particle that has an unchanging final vowelling no matter where you put it in a sentence. Second we have the verb samaḥt which has a suffix t, which is the second person personal pronoun “you.” This particle does not change the final vowelling state/sign of the verb following it.
Becky: Now let’s get into some more complicated structures. Adding conditional particles to other particles creates more complex meanings.
Hany: For example لا يُمكِنُكِ دُخولُ السِفارَةِ إن لَم تَجلِبي مَعَكِ جَوْازُ سَفَرِك. (lā yumkinuki duḫūlu al-sifāraẗi ʾin lam taǧlibī maʿaki ǧawāzu safarik.)
Becky: meaning “You can't get into the embassy if you don't have your passport.”
Hany: Here we have the conditional ʾin combined with the negation particle lam. Next we have the verb taǧlib with the feminine second person present tense verb personal pronoun suffix ī.
Becky: All in all, it should mean “if you do not have/bring”.
Hany: In the dialogue there is another complex expression, ماذا لَوْ أَحضَرتُ مَعي بِطاقَتي الجامِعِيَّة؟ (māḏā law ʾaḥḍartu maʿī biṭāqatī al-ǧāmiʿiyyah?)
Becky: which means “What if I bring my university ID card?”
Hany: Here, we have the interrogative pronoun māḏā preceding the conditional, law, giving a combined meaning of “what if.” Then we have the verb ʾaḥḍar in the past tense with the first person personal pronoun suffix, tu.
Becky: The overall meaning will be “what if I bring...” This expression is quite similar to English in structure.
Hany: In the dialogue, there is also an example with ʾiḏā. إذا كُنتِ طالِبَةً في جامِعَةٍ مِصرِيَّةٍ يُمكِنُكِ الدُخول بِبِطاقَتِك. (ʾiḏā kunti ṭal-ibaẗan fī ǧāmiʿaẗin miṣriyyaẗin yumkinuki al-duḫūl bibiṭāqatik.)
Becky: meaning “If you are a student in an Egyptian university, you can get in using your university ID card.”
Hany: The special thing about this sentence is that it starts with كان (kana), which is used when you want to create a conditional clause from a noun sentence.
Becky: As we have already mentioned, noun sentences cannot be conditional in their original form.
Hany: They have to be changed to a كان sentence to be integrated into the conditional clause.
Becky: That way, you can form the “if you are/were” or “If I were” sentences.
Hany: Kunti, كُنتِ, is the feminine second person version of كان, and talibah means a female student. All together we have, ʾiḏā kunti ṭal-ibaẗan
Becky: this means “If you are/were a student”.
Hany: Lastly, let’s take a look at the sentence حَتّى إذا كُنتُ أَجنَبِيَّة؟ (ḥattā ʾiḏā kuntu ʾaǧnabiyyah?)
Becky: meaning “Even if I was a foreigner?”
Hany: We have the particle ḥattā with the conditional ʾiḏā, all in all meaning “even if”. Then we have Kuntuُ كُنتِ meaning “I was/were.” All together, it’s ḥattā ʾiḏā kuntu
Becky: which means “even if I were.” Ok, let’s wrap up this lesson with a couple of sample sentences.
Hany: Sure, here is one. إذا كُنتَ أَكبَرَ سِنّاً لَدَخَلت.(ʾiḏā kunta ʾakbara sinnan ladaḫalt.)
Becky: "If you were older, you would've gotten in."
Hany: إن نَجَحتَ في المُقابَلَة, يُمكِنُكَ دُخول الاِمتِحان. (ʾin naǧaḥta fī al-muqābalah, yumkinuka duḫūl al-imtiḥān.)
Becky: "If you pass the interview, you can take the exam."

Outro

Becky: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Hany: شكرا

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Can you write a sentence using ʾiḏā?